Tag Archives: Flora Croatica

The Adriatic iris (Iris adriatica)

Last year in this period, while walking on a rocky pasture near Ustrine, a small village of the Cres island that faces the western side of the island, in search for the Mediterranean black widow spider (Latrodectus tredecimguttatus), the entomologist Nediljko Landeka and the botanist Slavko Brana spotted here for the first time  the endemic species Iris adriatica (Fig.1). 

Described for the first time in 1980 by Trinjastic & al. but, it has been validly published only in 2002, with the scientific name Trinajstić ex Mitić. Since then, this endemic species has been found only in the Dalmatian region around the cities of Zadar, Sibenik, Split, Drnis and Unesic and on the islands of Ciovo, Brac, Kornati and Vir.

Iris adriatica´s flowers can be found in early spring (March-April) in mediterranean and sub-mediterranean meadows, within the “Stipo-Salvietum officinals” (a mixture of Stipa grasses and Salvia officinalis)  and the “Festuco-Koelerietum splendentis” (a mixture of Festuca and Koeleria splendens grasses) associations as well as in rocky pastures.

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Fig. 1 Two specimens of Iris adriatica. Picture taken in mid-March last year (2016) near Ustrine (Cres island) by Nediljko Landeka. Since it is very similar to other dwarf Iris species like I. pumila, I. attica and I. pseudopumia, the exact determination has been done by the botanist Slavko Brana.

Description: Dwarf, rhizomatous plant, perennial but usually leafless in winter. The stem is short (3-5 cm) and the leaves narrow, straight, sometimes sickle shaped, up to 10 cm long, and 0.5-1 cm wide. The flowers, solitary and large at the top of the stem, can be yellow, purple or violet.

Conservation status: Listed as near threatened in the Flora Croatica Red Book.  The wild population is decreasing due to succession of the vegetation – the overgrowth of more dominant species (shrubs) due to the reduced utilisation.

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